HEMATOLOGY

Blood results made easy

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Blood results made easy

Figure 1.1: Composition of whole blood, serum and plasma The main disadvantage of using serum is that the blood has already clotted. In other words, a series of metabolic processes…

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The full blood count

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on The full blood count

The red blood cell indices These will usually be haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and RBC. Hb is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (erythrocytes) and it can be used…

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Liver function tests

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Liver function tests

deficiencies in iron, B12 and glucose); metabolic production ( production of cholesterol, CRP, fibrinogen (PT, INR, aPTT) and albumin); and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxins. Liver function tests (LFTs)…

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Bone profile

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Bone profile

urea and electrolytes or U&Es), a patient with dysfunctional renal output (as shown by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60) may be less able to…

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The immune system

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on The immune system

Figure 8.1: A normal response to a viral infection In Figure 8.1, the virus uses the internal machinery of the cell to replicate itself. It then bursts the cell and…

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Renal function: Urea and electrolytes

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Renal function: Urea and electrolytes

potassium to acid base.) Potassium levels are tightly controlled by the kidneys. Hypokalaemia (K <3.5mmol/L) Patient 1 has been affected by inappropriate use or dosage of diuretics, although most are…

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Chronic disease markers: Diabetes

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Chronic disease markers: Diabetes

Figure 10.1: Flow diagram of insulin-mediated storage of glucose as glycogen Glucose causes insulin to be released from beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin converts glucose to glycogen (in a…

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Thyroid function

Mar 13, 2020 by in HEMATOLOGY Comments Off on Thyroid function

Figure 13.1: Thyroid hormones Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is raised T4, leading to increased metabolic rate (often with a goitre), agitation and weight loss. Most cases are primary Grave’s autoimmune, although a…

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