ENDOCRINOLOGY

Disorders of Mineral Metabolism II. Abnormalities of Mineral Homeostasis in the Newborn, Infant, Child, and Adolescent

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of Mineral Metabolism II. Abnormalities of Mineral Homeostasis in the Newborn, Infant, Child, and Adolescent

Acknowledgment In memory of Frank B. Diamond, Jr, MD. Disorders of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate metabolism and of bone formation, accrual, and maintenance during the first 2 decades of life…

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Diabetes Mellitus

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of disturbed energy metabolism involving carbohydrate, protein, and fat brought about by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, in the context of…

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Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

Introduction The autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) are uncommon constellations of organ-specific autoimmune diseases characterized by the occurrence of more than one autoimmune disease in an affected individual ( Table 22.1…

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Hypoglycemia in the Toddler and Child

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Hypoglycemia in the Toddler and Child

Introduction Glucose is an obligate fuel for the brain under physiological conditions. The brain can neither synthesize glucose nor store more than approximately a 20-minute supply of glycogen; therefore brain…

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Lipid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Lipid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Introduction Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adults in industrialized countries. Dyslipidemia (specifically elevated low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol,…

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Puberty in the Female and Its Disorders

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Puberty in the Female and Its Disorders

Puberty is the stage of development during which secondary sexual characteristics appear and there is a transition from the sexually immature to the sexually mature stage. Adolescence is widely used…

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Puberty and Its Disorders in the Male

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Puberty and Its Disorders in the Male

Puberty is the process through which children attain adult secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive capability. In humans, two distinct processes of sexual maturation are recognized: gonadarche and adrenarche. Gonadarche is…

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Turner Syndrome

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Turner Syndrome

Historical background Turner syndrome (TS) is defined as a disorder caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, with or without cell line mosaicism. This further needs…

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Care of Transgender/Gender Nonconforming Youth

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Care of Transgender/Gender Nonconforming Youth

Introduction Concurrent with increasing public awareness of individuals whose gender identity is not aligned with their physical sex characteristics, there has been an increasing number of gender nonconforming/transgender youth seeking…

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