ENDOCRINOLOGY

Parathyroid disease

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Parathyroid disease

Parathyroid disease, syndromes and pathophysiology William B. Inabnet James A. Lee Barnard J.A. Palmer Introduction Hyperparathyroidism is a disease characterised by elevated serum calcium and inappropriately elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, which occurs…

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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Introduction In 1907 Oberndorfer first used the name carcinoid to describe rare ileal tumours with less malignant behaviour than common large bowel carcinomas. Subsequently it became a common name for…

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The adrenal glands

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on The adrenal glands

Anatomy The adrenal glands are retroperitoneal structures weighing approximately 5–7 g that have a characteristic golden colour due to cholesterol in their cortex (see Fig. 3.1 ). Their position and…

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The salivary glands

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on The salivary glands

Introduction The salivary glands are composed of paired parotid, submandibular, lingual and several hundred minor salivary glands that are distributed throughout the upper aerodigestive system. Diseases of the salivary glands…

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Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) are the most common endocrine tumours found in the abdomen. They may be broadly classified into two groups: functional tumours, which cause clinical syndromes due…

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The thyroid gland

Sep 17, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on The thyroid gland

Background Embryology, surgical anatomy and physiology Embryology The thyroid gland originates from the first pharyngeal arch and begins as an out-pouching of endodermal tissue from the base of the tongue,…

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Genetic Diagnosis of Growth Failure

Sep 7, 2019 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Genetic Diagnosis of Growth Failure

Abstract Growth hormone (GH) insensitivity can result from molecular defects at multiple levels, including the genes for the GH receptor ( GHR ), signal transducer and activator of transcription (…

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