ENDOCRINOLOGY

Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Hereditary Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Hereditary Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Introduction Endocrine neoplasms comprise a variety of benign and malignant tumors that arise from the endocrine glands or other neuroendocrine tissues, such as the paraganglia. Most childhood endocrine tumors, typified…

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The Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on The Adrenal Cortex and Its Disorders

History, embryology, and anatomy The adrenal cortex produces three principal categories of steroid hormones that regulate a wide variety of physiologic processes from fetal to adult life. Mineralocorticoids, principally aldosterone,…

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Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Thyroid Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Introduction Thyroid disease can present with overt symptoms, insidiously, or with isolated thyromegaly. Thyroid disease in children can encompass isolated biochemical abnormalities that have little or no physiological consequence, or…

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Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary

Introduction Maintenance of the tonicity of extracellular fluids within a very narrow range is crucial for proper cell function. Extracellular osmolality regulates cell shape, as well as intracellular concentrations of…

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Disorders of Childhood Growth

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of Childhood Growth

Introduction Human growth is an astonishing process. Its beginnings are intertwined with the enormously intricate mechanisms that transform a single cell into a complex embryo. Once formed, the human fetus…

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Hypoglycemia in the Newborn and Infant

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Hypoglycemia in the Newborn and Infant

Introduction One of the most important metabolic events to mark the transition from fetal to neonatal life is the adaptation from an environment that has a readily available and continuous…

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Ambiguous Genitalia

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Ambiguous Genitalia

Introduction Throughout history, humans have sought to understand the differences between biological sexes and the mechanisms responsible for these biological differences. Normal gonadal differentiation and sex development depend on the…

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