ENDOCRINOLOGY

Lipoproteins

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Lipoproteins

Background Two of the most abundant lipid components in plasma are cholesterol and triglycerides (TG); however, both are virtually insoluble in water. To be transported to various tissues, these lipids…

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Evaluation of hypoglycemia

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Evaluation of hypoglycemia

Introduction The body must be protected from hypoglycemia because severe acute hypoglycemia can cause seizures, coma, and even death . On the other hand, chronic hyperglycemia is toxic to blood…

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Disorders of the adrenal gland

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of the adrenal gland

The adrenal gland produces glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, and catecholamines. Deficiency or excess of any of these hormones results in clinical disease. Aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid that regulates sodium and water…

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Endocrine disorders of the reproductive system

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Endocrine disorders of the reproductive system

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Reproductive endocrinology includes the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the adrenal glands. The hormones necessary for proper reproductive function include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…

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Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be broadly classified as gastrointestinal NETs (GI-NETs) also referred to as previously and more commonly as carcinoid tumors and pancreatic NETs…

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Laboratory investigation of disorders of the pituitary gland

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Laboratory investigation of disorders of the pituitary gland

Anterior pituitary The anterior pituitary secretes the peptide hormones growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and the glycoprotein hormones thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone…

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Disorders of Mineral Metabolism II. Abnormalities of Mineral Homeostasis in the Newborn, Infant, Child, and Adolescent

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of Mineral Metabolism II. Abnormalities of Mineral Homeostasis in the Newborn, Infant, Child, and Adolescent

Acknowledgment In memory of Frank B. Diamond, Jr, MD. Disorders of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate metabolism and of bone formation, accrual, and maintenance during the first 2 decades of life…

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Diabetes Mellitus

Jan 4, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of disturbed energy metabolism involving carbohydrate, protein, and fat brought about by absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, in the context of…

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