Disorders of sexual development

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of sexual development

Introduction A disorder of sexual development (DSD) can be defined as “…any problem noted at birth where the genitalia are atypical in relation to the chromosomes or gonads” . “Ambiguous…

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The endocrinology of aging

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on The endocrinology of aging

Background As with all other organ systems, the endocrine axes are subject to physiological and pathological changes with aging. The purpose of this chapter is to assist the reader in…

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Transgender endocrinology

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Transgender endocrinology

Introduction The distinction between gender, a psychosocial identity rooted in masculinity and/or femininity, and sex assigned at birth, or the appearance of male versus female reproductive organs defined by chromosomal…

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Pregnancy and the fetus

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Pregnancy and the fetus

Introduction Pregnant women constitute a uniquely challenging patient population as clinical decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of the woman’s needs but must also consider the impact of…

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Laboratory evaluation of endocrine hypertension

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Laboratory evaluation of endocrine hypertension

Introduction Hypertension is common, silent, and often deadly when not successfully treated . Hypertension’s initial presentation can include cardiovascular disease (CVD) or renal disease . Although many sources associate hypertension…

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Disorders of calcium metabolism

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Disorders of calcium metabolism

Introduction Calcium is vital to many aspects of human biology . For example, calcium is involved in intracellular and intercellular signal transmissions, muscular contraction, coagulation, and bone biology. The body…

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Malignancy-associated endocrine disorders

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Malignancy-associated endocrine disorders

Introduction Overall, cancers of the endocrine system comprise 3.1% of the 1,806,590 new cancer cases estimated for 2020 . The majority of cases (95%) are attributed to thyroid cancer, which…

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Evaluation of hyperglycemia

Mar 11, 2021 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Evaluation of hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia: acute versus chronic Hyperglycemia is defined as an elevated plasma glucose (PG) concentration. Hyperglycemia can be classified as transient (acute) or sustained (chronic). Chronic hyperglycemia constitutes diabetes mellitus (which…

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