ENDOCRINOLOGY

Ambiguous Genitalia

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Ambiguous Genitalia

Fig. 19.1 Hormonal control of sexual differentiation By 7 weeks of pregnancy a fetus has a dual system—Wolffian ducts with the potential for the development of a male and Müllerian…

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Hypoglycemia in the Nondiabetic Patient

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Hypoglycemia in the Nondiabetic Patient

Fig. 33.1 Decision tree for the diagnosis and workup of hypoglycemic disorders Seventy-Two Hour Fast The 72-h fast is prolonged withholding of food and caloric fluids until Whipple’s triad has…

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Hirsutism and Virilization

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Hirsutism and Virilization

Age Adrenals Ovaries Others Prenatal/neonatal 46,XX CCAH: Maternal androgenizing tumors Maternal drugs Prepubertal 46,XX NCCAH Adrenal adenomas Adrenal carcinomas Adrenal hyperplasia 11β-HSD1 deficiency Androgen producing tumors (sex cord stromal; gonadoblastoma) …

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Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia Familial hypercalciuric hypercalcemia Hyperparathyroidism—jaw tumor syndrome Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism Adapted from ref. [5]…

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Metabolic Bone Diseases Other than Osteoporosis

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Metabolic Bone Diseases Other than Osteoporosis

Osteogenesis imperfecta symptoms Atypical fractures Short stature Scoliosis Blue sclera Hearing loss Dentinogenesis imperfecta Laxity of the ligaments Wormian bones Laxity of the skin The types of OI can be…

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Idiopathic Short Stature: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Idiopathic Short Stature: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach

Primary short stature—Skeletal abnormalities With recognizable skeletal dysplasia (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia) Without recognizable skeletal dysplasia (Turner syndrome, SHOX gene haploinsufficiency) Secondary short stature Malnutrition Psychosocial deprivation Chronic diseases Renal (renal failure,…

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Gestational Diabetes

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Gestational Diabetes

Fig. 28.1 The Pedersen Hypothesis. “Maternal hyperglycemia begets foetal macrosomia” Modified by Freinkel to include nutrients other than glucose (lipids and amino acids) Prior diagnostic pathways and nomenclature for diagnosis…

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Medical Management of Obesity

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Medical Management of Obesity

References Δt week n (P/O) Dose (mg/day) Δweight (P) Δweight (SA) Comments [55] 12 19/20 150 −2.1 kg −4.3 kg First clinical study [56] 12 39/37 30 −3.2 kg −3.6…

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Adrenal Incidentalomas

Mar 10, 2017 by in ENDOCRINOLOGY Comments Off on Adrenal Incidentalomas

Etiology Prevalence (%) Laboratory screening Nonfunctional adenoma 85 Normal Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome 7 1-mg DST(serum cortisol >3 μ/dl) Plasma ACTH (<5 pg/ml) Pheocromocytoma 3.5 24-h urine metanephrines >2 mg/g Cr…

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