Tick-borne disease

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Jun 18, 2016 | Posted by in INFECTIOUS DISEASE | Comments Off on Tick-borne disease
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Disease Organism Geographic distribution and vector Typical clinical findingsa
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) Rickettsia rickettsii Eastern United States:
Dermacentor variabilis (dog tick)
Mountain West: Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick)
Southwestern deserts: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick)
Fever, headache, petechial rash, hyponatremia, thrombocytopenia
Rickettsia parkeri infection Rickettsia parkeri Southeastern United States: Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick) Similar to RMSF, but with eschar at inoculation site; rash may be vesicular or pustular; gastrointestinal symptoms less prominent
Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) Ehrlichia chaffeensis Southeastern and southcentral states: Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick) Similar to RMSF, but rash less common; leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminases
Human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA)b Anaplasma phagocytophilum Northeast and upper Midwest: Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged tick)
Pacific coast: Ixodes pacificus
Similar to HME, but rash is rarely present
Ehrlichia ewingii infection Ehrlichia ewingii Southeastern and southcentral states: A. americanum Same as HGA
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi Northeast and upper Midwest: I. scapularis
Pacific coast: I. pacificus
First stage: fever, erythema migrans
Second stage: multiple skin lesions, conjunctivitis, arthralgias, myalgias, headache, cranial nerve palsies
Third stage: arthritis; encephalopathy, dementia, peripheral neuropathy
Southern tick-associated rash illness Borrelia lonestari Southeastern and southcentral states: A. americanum Rash similar to erythema migrans
Endemic relapsing fever Borrelia hermsii
B. turicatae
B. parkeri
Western mountains and deserts: Ornithodoros species Fever, chills, relapsing course
Tularemia Francisella tularensis Eastern United States:
D. variabilis
Mountain West: D. andersoni
Southeastern and southcentral states: A. americanum
Fever, cutaneous eschar, lymphadenopathy, pulse–temperature dissociation
Babesiosis Babesia microti Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast: I. scapularis, other Ixodes species Fever, malaise, headache, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia
Colorado tick fever Coltivirus Mountain West: D. andersoni Fever, headache, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia; biphasic course
Powassan encephalitis Powassan virus Northeastern, north-central United States: Ixodes species, D. andersoni Headache, seizures, altered sensorium, focal neurologic signs, meningismus
Tick paralysisc Neurotoxin