Prevention of Viral Hepatitis
Zhi Q. Yao
Since hepatitis A is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route, on contaminated hands, or in food and water sources, personal hygiene is critical in prevention of viral spread.
An inactivated HAV vaccine was licensed in 1995, and the FDA recommends that all children should be vaccinated starting at 1 year of age.
HAV vaccine efficacy after two doses is 94% to 100%, with protection lasting for at least 20 years.
Emergency prevention of hepatitis A consists of hepatitis A immune globulin and hepatitis A vaccine, which should be given to all nonimmune contacts exposed to an infected person.
Persons at high risk should also be vaccinated
Chronic liver disease
Men who have sex with men
Travelers to areas of high incidence
Hepatitis A Vaccine Adult Schedule
Prevention of hepatitis B is predicated on providing prophylaxis and immunization to patients recently exposed or at risk for exposure.
It is now universal practice to provide the hepatitis B vaccine to all newborns.
Infants whose mothers are HBV infected should also be given hepatitis B immune globulin at birth, which can result in a 95% reduction in prenatal transmission.
Persons who were born before the onset of universal vaccination should be offered vaccination, especially if they are at risk of being exposed, including the following:
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